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Genetic Engineering, also called recombinant DNA technology, involves the group of techniques used to cut up and join together genetic material, especially DNA from different biological species, and to introduce the resulting hybrid DNA into an organism in order to form new combinations of heritable genetic material. Genetic engineering has been applied in numerous fields including research, medicine, industrial biotechnology and agriculture. Many more new discoveries are invented in the Genetic Research. But the few Recent Discoveries in Genetic Engineering. 

  1. GM Mosquito Progeny Not Dying in Brazil: Study:
  2. Timing and Order of Molecular Events Recorded in Live Cells’ DNA
  3. FDA Lifts Import Restrictions on Genetically Engineered Salmon
  4. Gene Drive–Equipped Mosquitoes Released into Lab Environment
  5. Better Base Editing in Plants
  6. Info graphic: Plant Genome Editors Get A New Tool
  7. Opinion: GE Crops Are Seen Through a Warped Lens.

 

Crops: Genetically modified crops (GM crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods. In most cases, the aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. Examples in food crops include resistance to certain pests, diseases, environmental conditions, reduction of spoilage, resistance to chemical treatments (e.g. resistance to a herbicide), or improving the nutrient profile of the crop. Examples in non-food crops include production of pharmaceutical agents, biofuels, and other industrially useful goods, as well as for bioremediation.
Food: Genetically modified foods (GM foods), also known as genetically engineered foods (GE foods), or bioengineered foods are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering techniques allow for the introduction of new traits as well as greater control over traits when compared to previous methods, such as selective breeding and mutation breeding.

 

Gene Therapy: Human DNA is estimated to have approximately 12 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and thousands of copy number variants (CNVs), most of which are not harmful. However, genetic disorders do sometimes occur as a result of mutations that alter or inhibit protein function. Gene therapy focuses on correcting these mutated or defective genes by way of the following techniques

  • Random insertion of a normal gene into the genome (most common technique)
  • Replacement of the abnormal gene with a normal one
  • Repair of the abnormal gene
  • Altering regulation of a particular gene.

IVF: The in vitro fertilization (IVF) "miracle" of the late 1970s occurred five years before the polymerase chain reaction revolutionized the field of genetics, 18 years before the first bacterial genome was sequenced, and 26 years before completion of the human genome sequence.
Stem Cell Therapy: Beyond gene therapy, another issue of much debate relates to the use of stem cells. These cells can be divided into two broad classes: embryonic and adult. Both classes are currently being explored for possible therapeutic applications.
Pharmacogenomics: Today, the field of personalized medicine makes use of pharmacogenomics, or the science that predicts a person's response to a drug based upon that person's genetic makeup. Indeed, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) signaled its commitment to personalized medicine with the decision to add a warning to the label of a widely used blood thinner stating that response to the drug might be influenced by a person's genetic makeup.

A gene mutation is a permanent alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene, such that the sequence differs from what is found in most people. Mutations range in size; they can affect anywhere from a single DNA building block (base pair) to a large segment of a chromosome that includes multiple genes. Mutation in the DNA of a body cell of a multicellular organism (somatic mutation) may be transmitted to descendant cells by DNA replication and hence result in a sector or patch of cells having abnormal function, an example being cancer.

Molecular Cloning: It is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms.The use of the word cloning refers to the fact that the method involves the replication of one molecule to produce a population of cells with identical DNA molecules. Molecular cloning generally uses DNA sequences from two different organisms: the species that is the source of the DNA to be cloned, and the species that will serve as the living host for replication of the recombinant DNA.
Gene Delivery: Gene delivery is the process of introducing foreign genetic material, such as DNA or RNA, into host cells. Genetic material must reach the nucleus of the host cell to induce gene expression. Successful gene delivery requires the foreign genetic material to remain stable within the host cell and can either integrate into the genome or replicate independently of it.

 

A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. A wide variety of organisms have been genetically modified (GM), from animals to plants and microorganisms. People have been altering the genomes of plants and animals for many years using traditional breeding techniques. Agricultural plants are one of the most frequently cited examples of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Some benefits of genetic engineering in agriculture are increased crop yields, reduced costs for food or drug production, reduced need for pesticides, enhanced nutrient composition and food quality, resistance to pests and disease, greater food security, and medical benefits to the world's growing population.

Plasmids are made up of circular double chains of DNA. The circular structure of plasmids is made possible by the two ends of the double strands being joined by covalent bonds. Although a good number of plasmids have a covalently closed circular structure, some plasmids have a linear structure and do not form a circular shape.

Types:

  1. Resistance Plasmids
  2. Degradative Plasmids
  3. Fertility Plasmids
  4. Col Plasmids
  5. Virulence Plasmids

Vector: A vector refers to any piece of molecule that contains genetic material that can be replicated and expressed when transferred into another cell.

 

Powerful new instruments and biotechnology related scientific disciplines (genomics, proteomics) make it possible to examine and exploit the behavior of proteins and molecules. Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technologies (genetic, protein, and metabolic engineering) allow the production of a wide range of peptides, proteins, and biochemicals from naturally nonproducing cells. This technology, now approximately 25 years old, is becoming one of the most important technologies developed in the 20(th) century.

 

Clinical genetics involves the study, counseling and treatment of individuals and families with heritable disorders and disease predisposition. Diagnostic tools include standard ontologies for describing dysmorphology and traits, pedigree analysis, disease locus mapping by linkage or homozygosity, karyotyping, genome sequencing and genotyping.

 

DNA fingerprinting or DNA profiling is a method used to identify an individual from a sample of DNA by looking at unique patterns in their DNA. DNA profiling is a forensic technique in criminal investigations, comparing criminal suspects' profiles to DNA evidence so as to assess the likelihood of their involvement in the crime.

 

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) followed by implantation of unaffected embryos offers high-risk couples the option to decrease the risk of genetic disease in their offspring without the dilemma of a prenatal diagnosis that may be followed by a termination of pregnancy.

 

CRISPR is a type of gene-editing technology that lets scientists more rapidly and accurately 'cut' and 'paste' genes into DNA. It is based on a targeted DNA-destroying defense system originally found in certain prokaryotes. CRISPR stands for "Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats", a term that describes a family of nucleic acid sequences that were discovered in archaea and bacteria in the 1990s containing copies of virus genes. This ability to identify specific DNA sequences with precision and break them apart was quickly recognized as a perfect tool for editing genes.

  

 

Stem cells are undifferentiated or unspecialized cells without a specific function because they have not yet changed into specific tissue cells. Stem cells are different to other body cells because during division they present the following characteristics:

  1. They produce new copies of themselves indefinitely.
  2. They produce new cells that under the right stimuli can develop into different tissues of which the human body is composed of.
  3. They can colonies and repair sick tissues or organs, replacing sick cells with healthy cells.

Cloning is a set of laboratory methods and techniques that allows us to reproduce any biological material as many times as we want, specifically cells, DNA, etc. We could say that cloning is the same as photocopying, that is, to make as many identical copies of something as we need. ery easily, what we want to clone are very special cells called stem cells.

 

Industrial biotechnology, also known as white biotechnology, is the modern use and application of biotechnology for the sustainable processing and production of chemicals, materials and fuels from renewable sources, using living cells and/or their enzymes. This field  is widely regarded as the third wave of biotechnology, distinct from the first two waves (medical or red biotechnology and agricultural or green biotechnology).

 

Medicinal biotechnology aims to produce pharmaceutical and diagnostic products for the prevention and treatment of human diseases using living cells and cell materials. The areas of application of medicinal biotechnology are genetic testing, drug production, gene therapy and pharmacogenomics. One of the major uses in biotechnology is for medicinal purposes. Modern applications of biotechnology continue to find promising new uses in the medicinal and health care fields.